28 June 2017

ALDULKERA TÁLUM ~ no-nonsense new transtation

Why is a new English translation of the Oera Linda-book needed? Because many improvements can be made, which will lead to a better understanding and appreciation of the text as a whole.

This post provides an example of an interpretation by Sandbach (1876) of an interpretation by Ottema (1872), which does not do justice to the original.

Ottema translated ALDULKERA TÁLUM as "Al zulke praatjes" (copied by all known Dutch translations thus far, see below). Praatjes can be understood neutrally as talk, but it mostly has a more negative connotation: gossip, rumours, babbling, brag, tales. Sandbach interpreted it as nonsense: "All such nonsense". The two known German translations - like praatjes - suggest a negative connotation, but they are not as explicitly negative as nonsense: "Derartige Redensarten" (Wirth), and "Lauter solche Geschichten" (Menkens). The Norse translation by Lien was the first to interpret it neutrally, as slik tale (such talk).

ALDULKERA is used three more times in the manuscript, just meaning such (no need to add all):
for such grass would kill your most precious cattle
with such weapons as he can invent, procure, and use
one ought to only choose such

Hettema's dictionary of 1832 confirms that somewhat changed versions of the word were still used in the 19th century, with the same meaning:
More significantly, TÁL (of which TÁLUM is plural) has no known negative connotation. It is used mostly to mean language, sometimes tale, narrative, wile it can sometimes be read as both. The related verb TÁLA simply means to tell, narrate:
(One must) Tell them of the heroes, of their heroic deeds and of distant sea voyages.
Of the one part no account has come to us, 
but our folk laughed at his words
Accounts of Nef-Tunis would later reach us, 
Speech and answers as an example to other Maidens. 
Our tales (or: language) and our interactions with one another made it clear to us that we both were Adela's folk.

We will now examine some of the context of ALDULKERA TÁLUM, and ask ourselves if it makes sense to interpret these words as such nonsense (my provisional translation, p. 152):

Everywhere they [the young maidens] said: "We no longer have a Mother, but that is because we have grown up. Today a king is more suitable for us, so we can reconquer our lands that the Mothers have lost by their incompetence!" 
They furthermore argued: "Every child of Frya was given the freedom to let his voice be heard, before a decision is made at the election of a leader. When it would come to the point of choosing a king again, I will therefore also give my opinion. From all I can consider, Friso was chosen for it by Wralda, for he was miraculously guided by Him here(1). Friso knows the tricks of the Gols and he speaks their language, so he can beware of their schemes. What reeve could be chosen as king without the others being envious?"  
Words like these were spoken by the young maidens, but the old maidens, though few in number, sang a different tune(2).

(1) lit. "for he has miraculously guided/brought him here" - swapped subject (Wralda) and object (Friso) for clarity, to match with previous and following sentence.
(2) lit. "tapped their reasoning from a different barrel" - expression. Du: "uit een ander vaatje tappen".

The narrator, Koneréd (son of Fréthorik and Wiljow), has earlier written that he sent his brother to Friso's military school (144/27), and he concludes Friso's biography (page 154) with the acknowledgment that he had reunited many states (adding some doubt as to whether that is a good thing for himself and his audience), and that Friso had become more famed than any of his predecessors.

In other words: He could have been much more negative in his judgement of Friso, but seems to rather have tried to give a neutral account.

Considering this, it is not justified to interpret ALDULKERA TÁLUM as such nonsense. I therefore suggest something more neutral, such as "words like these".

~ ~ ~

some cognates in related languages, besides English:
tale (speech) - Norse, Danish
tal (speech, talk, number) - Swedish, Icelandic
tala (to speak) - Swedish, Icelandic
tale ( ,, ) - Danish
fortelle (tell) - Norse
taal (language, speech) - Dutch
(ge)tal (number) - Dutch
vertellen/vertelling (tell/tale) - Dutch
Zahl (number) - German
erzählen (tell, narrate, explain) - German

~ ~ ~


Ottema 1872 Dutch:
Al zulke praatjes werden door de jonge maagden gehouden,
Sandbach 1876 English:
All such nonsense the young maidens talked;
Wirth 1933 German:
Derartige Redensarten wurden durch die jungen Maiden verbreitet;
Overwijn 1951 Dutch:
Al zulke praatjes werden door de jonge maagden verkocht,
Jensma 2006 Dutch:
Al zulke praatjes werd door de jonge maagden verkondigd
De Heer 2008 Dutch:
Al zulke praatjes werd door de jonge maagden gesproken
(Raubenheimer 2011 English: as Sandbach)
Menkens 2013 German:
Lauter solche Geschichten wurden durch die jungen Maiden/Frauen verkündet,
Lien 2013 Norse:
Slik tale ble forkynt av de unge jomfruene;


22 June 2017

BIDOBBA, as a matter of speaking

an attempt to exhume a lost meaning

detail of "Saul and the Witch of Endor" by Jacob Cz. van Oostsanen (1526)

One of the main arguments against the authenticity of the Oera Linda-book is that the language would be too modern; that it would simply be oldfrisianised 19th century Dutch. However, many fragments are hard to translate and the various translators often present very different translations, many of which have been discussed and improved on this blog. Obviously, adherents of the hoax theory will argue that the alleged creator(s) added these difficulties to create doubt, confusion, or an illusion of authenticity.

In this post I will show another of these difficulties and my interpretation, which is different from the existing ones.

~ ~ ~

In an earlier post I discussed the OLB-verb BIDOBBA and its relation to 'tub' and 'dopen' (to baptise). The first meaning is to cover/ bury, from DOBBA: dig, delve (also see below: 'bidobje' in modern Frisian). In two of the fragments, however, the verb has a metaphorical meaning, which is not clear.

Fragment 1. [056/15]
Those who valued their stomachs above justice, ...

Fragment 2. [149/17]
Pay attention to how Friso ...

First I will summarise the differences, then list the translated fragments, and finally discuss them.
Besides the question what the verb BIDOBBA means in the first fragment, also the personal pronoun HINI was interpreted differently: as "themselves" (Jensma and Lien) and as "him" (other translators). The OLB has three other occurrences of HINI, where it means "him" each time (30/5, 85/22, 86/20). Reflexive pronouns almost always contain SELVA or SELF. It would thus most probably have been HJARA SELVA instead of HINI, if 'themselves' was meant. Therefore "him" is more likely the right interpretation of HINI.
~ ~ ~

Summary of differences

Fragment 1.

worry, fret, drudge
work his way/  proceed
fob off
win over
Ottema Sandbach
De Heer
Menkens* Jensma** Lien Ott***
* Menkens gave two possible - very different - interpretations and admitted in footnote that he was uncertain.
** Jensma admitted in footnote that he was uncertain and had also considered 'dupe' (bedotten).
*** I am not certain either and decided for this translation mainly because it is the only one that fits in both fragments, considering the context.

Fragment 2.

deceive/ dupe/ fool
(bedotten, hineinlegen,
voor de gek houden, dupere)
fob off
influence/ seduce
(beeinflussen/ becircen)
win over
De Heer
Jensma Menkens Ott

Translated fragments

Ottema 1872 Dutch
1. lieten hem tobben (let him worry/ fret/ drudge)
2. allen wist te bedotten (duped them all)

Sandbach 1876 English
1. let him work his own way
2. understood deceiving everybody

Wirth 1933 German
1. ließen ihn gewähren (let him bestow)
2. alle hineinzulegen wußte (trick them all)

Overwijn 1951 Dutch
1. lieten hem begaan (let him proceed)
2. ze allemaal voor de gek wist te houden (fool them all)

Jensma 2006 Dutch
1. die lieten zich afschepen (let themselves be fobbed off)
2. allen wist af te schepen (fobb them all off)
(footnote to 1.: unclear, as in 149/18 where it is appease or something similar; perhaps 'bedotten' - dupe)

De Heer 2008 Dutch (1. as Overwijn; 2. as Ottema

Raubenheimer 2011 English (1. and 2. as Sandbach)

Menkens 2013 German
1. die ließen ihn gewähren/ toben (let him bestow/ rage)
2. alle zu beeinflussen/ becircen wußte (influence/ seduce them all)
(footnote to 1.: uncertain; to 2.: compare 'bedeppert' - dazed/ stunned; 'doof' - dumb; 'dope')

Lien 2013 Norse
1. de lot seg dupere (let themselves be duped)
2. visste å dupere alle (how Friso knew how to dupe them all)

Ott 2017 English (provisional, not official yet)
1. let him win them over
2. succeeded in winning them them all over

detail of "The Antiquarian"
by Ulpiano Checa (1908)
Discussion and conclusion

Ottema in the first translation of 1872 used words that sound somewhat similar, but are not likely related:
1. tobben (worry, fret, drudge)
2. bedotten (dupe, deceive)
More importantly, they do not really make sense, considering the context.

As for 'tobben', the later translators seem to agree with me, as they all chose a very different interpretation, although Menkens does something similar with 'toben' (to rage), and Lien with 'dupere' (to dupe).

Then 'bedotten' (dupe, decieve); a similar word was chosen by most other translators. Only Jensma and Menkens had a somewhat less negative interpretation, which still makes no sense in my opinion, as I will explain below.

Let's first look at the context of both fragments (translation Sandbach):

1. ... the Magy did just as he pleased, because his daughter had a son by Wodin, and he would have it that this son was of high descent. While all were disputing and quarrelling, he crowned the boy as king, and set up himself as guardian and counsellor. Those who cared more for themselves than for justice let him [?!?!?], but the good men took their departure.

2. Here you must observe how Friso understood [?!?!?] everybody, to the satisfaction of both parties, and to the accomplishment of his own ends. To the Zeelanders he promised that they should have yearly fifty ships of a fixed size for a fixed price, fitted with iron chains and crossbows, and full rigging as is necessary and useful for men-of-war, but that they should leave in peace the Jutlanders and all the people of Frya's race. But he wished to do more; he wanted to engage all our sea rovers to go with him upon his fighting expedition. When the Zeelanders had gone, he loaded forty old ships with weapons for wall defences, wood, bricks, carpenters, masons, and smiths, in order to build citadels. Witto, or Witte, his son, he sent to superintend. [...] on each side of the harbour a strong citadel has been built, and garrisoned by people brought by Friso out of Saksenmarken. Witto courted Siuchthirte and married her. Wilhem, her father, was chief Alderman of the Jutmen [...]. Wilhem died shortly afterwards, and Witte was chosen in his place.

The second fragment provides most clues to what the mysterious word could mean. Firstly, what Friso did satisfied both parties and it helped him accomplish his own goal. He promised to sell the Zeelanders equipped ships, and to go on expeditions together with them. All under the condition that they would leave the Jutlanders in peace. It is obvious that Friso would profit from this too. Secondly, two strong citadels were built for the Jutlanders, and his son Witto married the daughter of the Jutmen's chieftain, whom he would later succeed. Friso, who's aim was to create an empire, in other words, had made valuable allies, and it would have been short-sighted to deceive them, as this would surely come to light in the long run and would make him enemies rather than friends.

My suggestion is that he won over (Dutch: inpalmen) the Zeelanders and the Jutlanders, and this meaning would also fit in the first fragment: The opportunists allowed the Magy to win them over.

from: Friesch Woordenboek A-H (1896)
Dijkstra & Buitenrust Hettema
How BIDOBBA would have gotten this (or a similar) secondary meaning is still a mystery to me. In Dijkstra's Frisian dictionary of 1896 this word has most coverage that I could find, but all listed examples are related to bury/ cover/ hide. Hettema's dictionary of 1874 does not list the word, and the one by Halbertsma of the same year only briefly mentions it means bury in earth.

So why would an alleged creator have chosen this word for something that has no clear relation to bury/ cover/ hide?

"To confuse", a hardcore believer of the hoax-doctrine (if there still is one) will say. But why? Why invest so much time and talent in a project that has no clear purpose, is by no means a crowd pleaser, and has made no one rich or famous. Yes, the Oera Linda-book did indeed create confusion, but to conclude that this must therefore have been its purpose is vainsense.

15 June 2017

"They aimed for the best" ~ new translation

dike-building on the Frisian island Ameland, 1913


In the first part of this fragment, the word DIGER was interpreted in various ways by the different translators. Sandbach left it out. I discussed DIGER earlier (scroll down to 7. April). It was used several times in the manuscript, with different meanings. Richthofen (1840) dictionary translated it as treu, sorgsam: loyal, careful. Modern cognates seem to be:
  • Dutch - degelijk, terdege, gedegen (solid, sound, thorough)
  • German - tüchtig (efficient, prodicient, competent)
  • Swedish/ Norse/ Danish: duktig/ dyktig/ dygtig (good, competent, skilled)
Competent fits well in the context here.
Jensma and Menkens end this part with a full stop, Lien uses a semicolon. All other translators have a comma, suggesting that what follows still is about Frya's folk. Since part one is in present tense (Frya's folk is...), and the rest is in past tense (they did not become... their aim laid...), I think the second part does not refer to Frya's folk in general, but specifically to the hard workers who restored the lands surrounding Liudweard.

1941 winner of the Frisian
Elfstedentocht, Auke Adema
In the second part, WIRG seems to have been interpreted through the context by my predecessors. In the only other occurence in the OLB*, the verb WIRGA means to strangle (Dutch/ German: wurgen/ würgen, old-Dutch: worgen). A cognate in English seems to be: weary, from Old English werig "tired, exhausted; miserable, sad". No etymologist seems to have made a link with worgen/ wurgen/ würgen yet...
Weary fits well here in the new translation.
Then the most rebellious were strangled with their chains.

The third part was paraphrased by Sandbach (copied by Raubenheimer), Overwijn, and Menkens. The other, more literal translations interpreted LÉIDE as the past tense of to lead (Dutch: (ge)leiden; German: führen). Elsewhere in the OLB, LÉIDE is always past of leggen (lay) or liggen (lie). Only once, as LÉITH, does it mean to lead (leads): WIS WÉSA ÀND WIS DVA ALLÉNA LÉITH TO SALICHHÉD.
For the interpretation, it does not change much, but it is a nice detail to be precise about. If they literally said "because their aim laid at the best", this feels like home to me, and can very well be paraphrased as "because they aimed for the best". I think the readers of my new translation will like this.

Here are my new provisional translation (still to be proofread by my editors) and the older ones to compare:

Ott 2017 English (provisional)
but Frya's folk is competent and diligent.
They* did not become tired or weary,

because they aimed for the best**.
(*'They' does not refer to Frya's folk, but to the people who restored the land around Liudweard; **lit.: because their aim laid at the best)

Ottema 1872 Dutch
Maar Fryas volk is wakker en vlijtig,
zij werden moede noch mat,
omdat hun doel ten beste geleidde.

Sandbach 1876 English
but Frya's people [part skipped by Sandbach]
were neither tired nor exhausted
when they had a good object in view
. [paraphrased]

Wirth 1933 German
Aber Fryas Volk ist wacker und fleißig,
sie werden weder müde noch mürbe [Dutch: murw],
weil ihr Ziel zum Besten führt.

Overwijn 1951 Dutch
Maar Frya's volk is wakker en vlijtig,
het werd moe noch mat,
omdat zijn plan het best mogelijke opleverde. [paraphrased: for its plan yielded the best possible result]

Jensma 2006 Dutch
Maar Frya's volk is oplettend en vlijtig.
Zij werden moe noch afgemat,
omdat hun doel tot het beste leidde.

De Heer 2008 Dutch
Maar Fryas volk is waardig en vlijtig,
zij werden moe noch mat,
doordat hun doel tot het beste leidde.

Raubenheimer 2011 English (as Sandbach)
but Frya's people are diligent and hard working
and they do not lose heart [interpretation]
when they had a good object in view. [paraphrased]

Menkens 2013 German
Aber Fryas Volk ist tüchtig und fleißig.
Sie wurden (weder) müde noch matt,
bis daß ihr Ziel erreicht war, [paraphrased: untill they had reached their goal]

Lien 2013 Norse
Frøyas folk er dyktige og flittige;
de var (verken) trette eller slitne [both words mean tired]
fordi deres mål ledet til det beste.

translation DIGER WIRG
Ottema wakker mat
Sandbach - exhausted
Wirth wacker mürbe
Overwijn wakker mat
Jensma oplettend afgemat
De Heer waardig mat
Raubenheimer diligent -
Menkens tüchtig matt
Lien dyktige slitne
Ott competent weary

13 June 2017

"This religion..." ~ a brand new translation

Boniface Converts the Germans by Johannes Gehrts (1855-1921)*


Ott 2017 English (provisional)
This religion, for which the priests need to have no other skills
than eloquence, hypocrisy and foul play

Ottema 1872 Dutch
Deze leer, waarbij de priesters geen andere wetenschap noodig hebben,
als bedriegelijk te redeneren, een vrome schijn en ongerechtigheden

Sandbach 1876 English
This doctrine, which requires the priests to possess no further knowledge
than to speak deceitfully, and to pretend to be pious while acting unjustly

Wirth 1933 German 
Diese Lehre, bei der die Priester keiner anderen Wissenschaft bedurfen,
als betrügerisch zu reden, frommen Scheines und Unrechtes zu pflegen

Overwijn 1951 Dutch 
Deze leer, waarbij de priesters geen andere wetenschap nodig hebben,
dan bedriegelijk redeneren, een vrome schijn ophouden en onrechtvaardige gebruiken 

Jensma 2006 Dutch 
Deze leer waarbij de priesters geen andere wetenschap behoeven,
dan gedrochtelijk raad te geven, vrome schijn en onrecht te plegen

De Heer 2008 Dutch 
De leer waarbij de priesters geen andere wetenschap behoeven,
dan bedrieglijk redeneren, vrome schijn en onrechte plichten

Raubenheimer 2011 English (as Sandbach)

Menkens 2013 German
Diese Lehre, bei der die Priester keine anderen Kenntnisse benötigen,
als betrügerisch zu reden, frommen Schein und Ungerechtigkeiten

Lien 2013 Norse
Denne læra, hvorved prestene ikke behøver noen annen viten
enn avgudelig rådgivning,
hellig ytre og urette skikker

= = = = = =

Redbad's intended baptism
(ca.1839) Johann Wilhelm Kaiser*
1. LÉRE: teaching/doctrine => religion
Leer/ Lehre/ læra (cognate: learn), meaning teaching or doctrine, may be closest to the original word, but I choose 'religion' as I think it fits better in the context.

2. WITSKIP: knowledge => skills
Wetenschap/ Wissenschaft/ viten (cognates: wit, wisdom), translated by Sandbach as 'knowledge', is problematic, since the three qualities or skills that follow can not really be described as knowledge. I think 'skills' fits better here.

3. DROCHTLIK RÉDA: to speak deceitfully => eloquence
Most translations had 'speaking deceitfully'. Jensma: 'monstrous counselling'; Lien: 'idolatrous counselling'. Although a modern cognate of DROCHTEN is 'gedrocht' (monster), elsewhere in the OLB (and still in the Middle Ages) this word means god or godhead. Even Wralda is sometimes referred to as DROCHTEN. Thus DROCHTLIK rather means 'divinely', and the skill of 'speaking divinely' can be translated as 'eloquence', which fits perfectly in the context.

4. FRÁNA SKIN: pretence of piety => hypocrisy
Dutch/ German: 'vrome schijn/ frommen Schein' (pretence of piety) is most literal, but this can more simply be interpreted as 'hypocrisy', which fits well in the context.

5. VNRJUCHTA PLÉGA: acting unjustly => foul play
VNJUCHTA is plural adjective 'unjust' and PLÉGA is plural noun 'practices'. Most translations have 'acting unjustly' or 'iniquities'. Since 'play' is a modern cognate of PLÉGA, I think 'foul play' fits well here.

= = = = = =

*PLEASE NOTE: I have used images of the Christianisation of northern Europe. The text in the OLB is not about Christianity, however (i.m.o.), but rather an earlier version of it.

09 June 2017

Archaeology-based reconstructions of faces and clothes

Dutch archaeology museum Huis van Hilde exhibits several sculptures that are reconstructions, based on skulls, skeletons and other finds in the north-west of Holland. This may give some idea of what the people described in the Oera Linda-book would have looked like.

900 BCE, Bovenkarspel
28 CE, Velsen: Frisian
200 CE, Velsen
600 CE, Castricum
200 BCE, Uitgeest: child
28 CE, Velsen: Roman soldier
400 CE, Castricum

700 CE, Wieringen
Click for larger image:

Short Dutch documentary of the reconstruction process:

Detailed English-language instructions for skull-based facial reconstruction:

06 June 2017



Portret van Gerard Andriesz Bicker,
Bartholomeus van der Helst, ca. 1642
I wonder if RUMA RIKA actually means "ruime rijke": wide and expensive/rich, or that it could be Dutch "roemrijk"/ German "ruhmreich": glorious, or in this context flamboyant, extravagant.

All earlier translations interpreted RUMA as wide. For two other OLB-fragments with "roemrijk" (ROMRIKA, ROMRIKSTA), see below. There are more words that have an U - O variety, but I don't have many examples yet (see below).

Ottema 1872 Dutch
knapen, die zich met wijde prachtige kleederen versierden

Sandbach 1876 English
boys dressed in splendid flowing robes

Wirth 1933 German
Knaben, die sich selber mit weiten reichen Kleidern schmückten

Overwijn 1951 Dutch
knapen, die zich met wijde, prachtige kleren sierden

Jensma 2006 Dutch
knapen die zichzelf met ruime rijke kleren sierden

De Heer 2008 Dutch
knapen die zich-zelf met wijde en kostbare kleren sierden

Raubenheimer 2011 English
lads who decorated themselves with wide expensive robes

Menkens 2013 German
Knaben, die sich selbst mit weiten prächtigen/reichen Kleidern zierten

Lien 2013 Norse
gutter som pyntet seg med vide, fargerike klær

HO KÀLTA VSA ROMRIKA BURCH VRDÉN HÉDEhow Kelta had destroyed our glorious burg
TOGHATERUM THÉRA ROMRIKSTA FORSTUMdaughters of the most glorious kings

Oldest known fragment from other sources:
"Soo trocken si al ghescaert dapperlicke ten stride waert criërende blidelike: Hya, Berge romerike" (Brabant, 1430-1450)

Note on same page as "RUMA RIKA KLÁTAR":
and no one could build a house, larger and more luxurious than that of his neighbors

Other examples of U - O variety:

GVNGON ca. 30x ~ GUNGON 4x ~ GONGON 2x
HVNDRED ca. 20x ~ HONDRED 4x

Between Dutch and German, the O/OE - U variety is very common:
Roem ~ Ruhm
Honderd ~ Hundert
Hond ~ Hund
Moed ~ Mut
Bloed ~ Blut
Som ~ Summe
Voet ~ Fuß

27 May 2017

Swiss pile-dwellings ~ archaelogy and reconstruction

Reconstruction of the Neolithic lake dwelling site discovered in Zurich [source]

These finds have been relevant in the discussion about OLB's authenticity as they can be considered as a confirmation. Hoax-theorists, however, argued that the manuscript must have been compiled after the remains had been found and made public in 1853, which would mean that Cornelis Over de Linden (and his witnesses) must have lied about having had the manuscript in his possession since 1848.

From Ottema's introduction of 1872 (translated by Sandbach):
Since the last twenty years attention has been directed to the remains of the dwellings on piles, first observed in the Swiss lakes, and afterwards in other parts of Europe. (See Dr E. Rückert, "Die Pfahlbauten;" Wurzburg, 1869. Dr T. C. Winkler, in the "Volksalmanak," t. N. v. A. 1867.) When they were found, endeavours were made to discover, by the existing fragments of arms, tools, and household articles, by whom and when these dwellings had been inhabited. There are no accounts of them in historical writers, beyond what Herodotus writes in book v. chapter 18, of the "Paeonen." The only trace that has been found is in one of the panels of Trajan's Pillar, in which the destruction of a pile village in Dacia is represented.
Doubly important, therefore, is it to learn from the writing of Apollonia that she, as "Burgtmaagd" (chief of the virgins), about 540 years before Christ, made a journey up the Rhine to Switzerland, and there became acquainted with the Lake Dwellers (Marsaten). She describes their dwellings built upon piles—the people themselves—their manners and customs. She relates that they lived by fishing and hunting, and that they prepared the skins of the animals with the bark of the birch-tree in order to sell the fare to the Rhine boatmen, who brought them into commerce. This account of the pile dwellings in the Swiss lakes can only have been written in the time when these dwellings still existed and were lived in. In the second part of the writing, Konerèd oera Linda relates that Adel, the son of Friso (± 250 years before Christ), visited the pile dwellings in Switzerland with his wife Ifkja.
Later than this account there is no mention by any writer whatever of the pile dwellings, and the subject has remained for twenty centuries utterly unknown until 1853, when an extraordinary low state of the water led to the discovery of these dwellings. Therefore no one could have invented this account in the intervening period. Although a great portion of the first part of the work—the book of Adela—belongs to the mythological period before the Trojan war, there is a striking difference between it and the Greek myths. The Myths have no dates, much less any chronology, nor any internal coherence of successive events. The untrammelled fancy develops itself in every poem separately and independently. The mythological stories contradict each other on every point. "Les Mythes ne se tiennent pas," is the only key to the Greek Mythology.

Relevant fragments in the OLB:

Appolánja's account (p. 109 of original), new provisional translation:
Above the Rhine, between the mountains, I have seen Marsata or lake dwellers. Their houses are built on poles, for protection against wild beasts and evil people. There are wolves, bears and terrible black leopards. They are also the 'Swetsar' - or neighbours - of the near Creeklanders, Kelta-followers, and the savage Twiskers, all eager to rob and plunder. The Marsata gain their livelihood by fishing and hunting. The skins are prepared with birch bark and sewn by the women. The small skins are soft like Maidens' felt. The burg-Maiden at New Fryasburg told us that they were good and simple [110] people, but without that knowledge, I would have thought they were savages rather than Fryas, judging by their brutal looks. Their skins and herbs are traded by the Rhine dwellers. and exported by the sailors.
Koneréd's account (p. 156 of original), translation Sandbach:
From Texland they went to Westflyland, and so along the cost to Walhallagara; thence they followed the Zuiderryn (the Waal), till, with great apprehension, they arrived beyond the Rhine at the Marsaten of whom our Apollonia has written.

More information:
"Neolithic lake dwelling found in Zurich reconstructed" 2017 link
"Neolithic and Bronze Age lakeside settlements in the Alpine region" 2007 link
Pfahlbau Museum