16 January 2018

BUFLE: aurochs or wisents? ~ and: cow bull, cattle

Aurochs male (left) and female (right) reconstruction

At least till ca. 600 CE, aurochs still lived in what is now the Netherlands (source).

In his "Commentaries on the Gallic War" (chapter 6.28) of ca. 50 BCE, Julius Caesar wrote (translation W.A. MacDevitt 1915):
There is a third kind, consisting of those animals which are called uri. These are a little below the elephant in size, and of the appearance, colour, and shape of a bull. Their strength and speed are extraordinary; they spare neither man nor wild beast which they have espied. These the Germans take with much pains in pits and kill them. The young men harden themselves with this exercise, and practice themselves in this kind of hunting, and those who have slain the greatest number of them, having produced the horns in public, to serve as evidence, receive great praise. But not even when taken very young can they be rendered familiar to men and tamed. The size, shape, and appearance of their horns differ much from the horns of our oxen. These they anxiously seek after, and bind at the tips with silver, and use as cups at their most sumptuous entertainments.

Adel with drinking horn (in Winsemius 1622)

The modern English 'buffalo' has a different, more specific meaning than the old Dutch/German word, which will have referred to (wild?) bovines in general: aurochs or wisents (European bison)?

"Buffel" ca. 1600 (source)
"Bufalo" by Albrecht Dürer ca. 1560 (source)

Below the most relevant fragments concerning both domesticated and wild bovines are listed. Particularly, nrs. 9 and 11 are interesting in relation to Caesar's report about the 'uri'.

words and fragment numbers

Stier van het Noordhollandse
veeslag; Stier van het Friese
veeslag (kleigronden); Groningse
witkopkoe (Hunsegoër slag)
Winkler Prins 1910
BUFLA (aurochs, bisons or oxen: plur.) - 10
BUFLE (aurochs or bison: sing. and plur.) - 9,11
BUHL (bull) - 8
FJA (cattle) - 2,4,5,7
KV, KY (cow, cows) - 1,12,13,14
KVIK* (animals, cattle) - 3
(*there are 11 other fragments where KWIK means animals in general, and 1 where it means quick)
SKET* (neat, cattle) - 6
(*SKÀT is used several times for treasure, riches)

fragments in the Oera Linda-book, with provisional translations

1 [003/02] Adela’s Advice
VRLOVANDE.RA KY MITH GOLDEN HORNA
and promised them mountains of gold [lit.: ‘cows with golden horns’ (expression)]

2 [003/24] Adela’s Advice
THÀNK ÍNES. THÉR WAS HÍR WÉSEN EN HÀRDE LVNG.SÍAKTE AMONG.ETH FJA
ÀND THÀT.ER THÉR JETA ÀRG WDE. 

SKOLDE J.ETH THÀN WEL WÁGJA
VMBE JVW HÉLENA FJA TO FARANDE AMONG HJARA SÍAKA FJA

ÀMMER NÀ.
Imagine if our cattle had been plagued by a serious lung disease,
which was still raging badly there. 

Would you then risk
mixing your healthy animals with their sick ones

Surely not!

3 [013/03] Frya’s Tex
HWAND ALDULKERA GÀRS SKOLDE JVW DJAROSTA KVIK DÉJA.
for such grass would kill your most precious cattle.

4 [021/10] General Laws
IS THÉR ÀNMAN ALSA ÀRG THAT.ER SJVCHT.SIAK FJA
JEFTHA VRDÉREN WÉR VRSELLATH VR HÉL GOD.

If any man is so bad that he sells diseased cattle
or damaged goods as sound,


5 [052/15] Magyars and Finns
HJA BOGADON VP VSA TÁL ÀND SÉDUM. VP VS FJA ÀND VPPA VS ÍSERE WÉPNE.
They praised our language and customs, our cattle and iron weapons,

6 [054/19] Wodin and the Magus
SÁ SKILUN THA WILDA SKET.HÀRDAR KÉMON ÀND VS ALGÁDUR VRDVA.
the wild herdsmen [lit.: cattle herds] will come and kill us off completely.

7 [064/30] The War of Kelta and Minerva
IVIN AS AL VS FJA THÀT LÀSTEN STURVEN IS.
just like all our cattle that died lately.

8 [068/15] Kelta and the Gols
LIK EN BUHL BY THÉRE NÔSE OMME LÉID.
led about like a bull with a ring in his nose.

 

9 [094/15] Death of Adela
EN JUNGE SAXMÀN BIRÉD EN WILDE BUFLE THÉRER SELVA FENSEN HÉDE ÀND TÀMAD.
A young Saxman rode a wild aurochs that he had caught and tamed.

10 [107/10] Apollania’s Burg
TOJENST THA DIK BY.T HUS THÉR FÁM STÉT THJU OWNE
AND ÀND MOL.MÁK THRVCH FJUWER BUFLA KRODEN.
 
At the dyke near the burgmaiden's home are the oven
and a treadmill for making flour, worked by four oxen.


11 [112/10] Apollania’s Journey
HO FÉLO BUFLE HÀST AL FÀNSEN ÀND HO FÉLO BÁRA
ÀND WOLVA HUDA HÀST AL VPPA THÉRE MÀRK BROCHT.

How many aurochs have you caught and how many bear
and wolf skins have you brought to the market?


12 [117/14] Frethorik: Fryasland Swamped
FON.A BOPPA LÁNDUM KÁPADE MÀN KY ÀND SKÉP
 Cows and sheep were purchased in the upper lands

13 [160/26] Gosa: Purity of Language
THÉRTHRVCH MÉI THAT ÉNE FOLK THÀT ÔRE FOLK ÉVIN MIN FORSTÁN
AS THJU KV THENE HVND ÀND THI WOLF THÀT SKÉP.
 
so that one folk can understand another folk just as little
as the cow the dog, or the wolf the sheep. 


14 [166/20] Liudgeart: Pangab Report
THA GRÁTESTE KENNATH EN ÉLE KV VRSLYNNA. 
The largest can swallow a whole cow,

14 January 2018

WÉRHÉD ~ truth

'Truth coming from the well armed
with her whip to chastise mankind'
by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1896)
Wahrheit - German
waarheid - Dutch, Afrikaans
wierheid - Frisian
Wourecht - Luxembourgian
gwirionedd - Welsh
vérité - French
verità - Italian, Corsican
veritat - Catalan
verdad - Spanish
verdade - Portuguese
(veritas - Latin)

(The Scandinavian words for 'truth' are related to English: sound, German: gesund, Dutch: gezond)
sandhed - Danish
sannhet - Norse
sanning - Swedish
sannleikur - Icelandic

Oera Linda fragments with my provisional translations:

[118/20] Gosa: Expulsion of Blacks
NW WINSTIK WEL THÀT MINA ÀFTERKVMANDA THÉRVP LETTA.
HO FÉR GOSA WÉRHÉD SPREK.

I hope my descendants will ascertain
to what extent Gosa was right
[lit.: spoke truth].

[140/18] Yesus or Buda, Krisen, Fo
MEN AS THA PRESTERA SKILUN WÁNA
THÀT HJA ALLET LJUCHT FON FRYA ÀND FON JES.US LÉRE UTDÁVATH HÀVA.
SÁ SKILUN THÉR IN ALLE WRDA MÀNNISKA VPSTONDA
THAM WÉRHÉD IN STILNISE AMONG EKKORUM WARATH
ÀND TOFÁRA THA PRESTERA FORBORGEN HÀVE.
THISSA SKILUN WÉSA UT FORSTA BLOD. FON PRESTERUM BLOD
FON SLÁVONUM BLOD ÀND FON FRYA.S BLOD.
THAM SKILUM HJARA FODDIKUM ÀND THÀT LJUCHT BUTA BRINGA
SÁ THAT ALLERA MÀNNALIK WÉRHÉD MÉI SJAN.
HJA SKILUN WÉ HROPA OVERA DÉDA THÉRA PRESTERA ÀND FORSTA.
THA FORSTA THÉR WÉRHÉD MINNA ÀND RJUCHT
THAM SKILUN FON THA PRESTERA WIKA.

When the priests will imagine, however,
that they have entirely extinguished the light of Frya and of Yesus' teachings,
people will rise in all regions,
who have silently treasured truth among each other,
hiding it from the priests.
They will be of royal blood, of priestly blood,
of slaves' blood and of Frya's blood.
They will bring their lamps and the light into the open,
so that everyone may see truth.
They will condemn the deeds of the priests and princes.
The princes who love truth and justice
will separate themselves from the priests.


(the above fragment in the original manuscript:)

 ~ ~ ~

The word TRVTH is also used once:

[101/09] Primal Teachings 2
SEND THÉR SVME THAM HJARA RENKA FRODA ÀNDET BÁR MAKJA
ALSA WRDON HJA THRVCH HJARA RAKKERA FÀT ÀND VMBIRA LASTER VRBARNAD
ELLA MITH FÉLO STÁTSKA PLÉGUM HJARA FALXA DROCHTNE TO.N ÉRE.
MEN IN TRVTH. ALLÉNA THÉRVMBE THÀT HJA.RA NAVT SKÁDA NE SKOLDE.

If there are any who see through their vile tricks and try to expose them,
these are caught by their henchmen and burnt for their defamation —
always with solemn ceremonies, in honour of their false divinities —
but in truth, it is only to protect the priesthood.

02 January 2018

SÉLE ~ soul

Cycle of rebirth at Dazu Rock Carvings
soul - English
Seele - German
ziel - Dutch
siel - Afrikaans, Frisian
själ - Swedish
sjel - Norse
sjæl - Danish
sál - Icelandic
Séil - Luxemburghian
sielu - Finnish
siela - Lithuanian


~ ~ ~

Fragments in the Oera Linda-book with provisional translations by me:

[00a/02] Hidde Oera Linda
THISSA BOKA MOT I MITH LIF ÀND SÉLE WÁRJA.
You must preserve these books with body and soul.

[083/19] Death of Frana
MIN ÁGUN WRDE THJÛSTRED. THA THAT ÔRE LJUCHT DÉGTH VP IN MINARA SÉLE.
My eyes are blurred, but the inner light of my soul emerges...

[084/32] Death of Frana
ÉR SJUGUN ETMELDE OM SEND. SKIL THIN SÉLE MITHA NACHTFÜGLUN TO THA GRÁWA OMMEWÁRA 
ÀND THIN LIK SKIL LEDSA VPPA BODEM FONA SE.
Within one week, your soul shall wander about graves with the night birds, 
and your corpse will lie on the bottom of the sea.

[124/19] Alexander the King
WR.ALDA LÉT SINE SÉLE LÁS
Wralda deserted his soul


[127/13] Demetrius and Friso
VNWILLING.LIK IS THIN LIF BIWLLAD. 
THAT NE SKIL JOW NAVT TO RÉKNED NI WRDE. 
THACH SÁHWERSA JOW JOWE SÉLE BIWLLATH 
SA NE SKIL JOW NIMMERTHE TO WAL.HÁLLA NE KVMA. 
JOW SÉLE SKIL THÀN OVER JRTHA OMME.WÁRA. 
SVNDER A THET LJUCHT SJA TO MVGANDE. 
LIK THA FLÁRA.MUSA ÀND NACHT.ULA SKILSTV ALRA DYSTIK IN THINA HOLA SKULA. 
THES NACHT.IS UTKVMA. THEN VP VSA GRÀVA GRÁJA ÀND HULA. 
THAHWILA FRYA HJRA HAVED FON JOW OFWENDA MOT.
Against your will, your body was defiled. 
That, you are not to blame for. 
But if you defile your soul, 
you will never reach Walhalla. 
Your soul will then wander over the earth 
without being able to see the light. 
Like bats and owls you will hide in your hole by day, 
and come out at night, crying and howling upon our graves, 
while Frya must turn her head away from you.

[140/07] Yesus or Buda
VMBE SIN AJN SÉLE TO BIHALDANE MOST MÀN FÜL ANDA CHERKE JÁN.
In order to save his own soul, one must offer the temple generously.

[196/06] Askar Prepares for War
JETA SWARTER AS SIN HÉR IS SINE SÉLE FVNDEN.
but his soul was found to be blacker than his hair

~ ~ ~

Possibly derived from SÉ (both verb 'see' and noun 'sea').

26 December 2017

Westfrisian ancestors

Since much of this project is about ancestors and some readers might wonder about my descent, I will now share some facts about this. First, the spread of my roots from the third generation (2x2x2 = 8 great-grandparents) to the sixth generation (8x8 = 64 gr.-gr.'parents of my 8 gr.-gr.'parents), then the variety of first names.

area of the Netherlands (North-Holland) in maps below

(each red dot represents the place of birth of one ancestor ~ map is of 1894)
genertation III: 8 ancestors
birth years range: 1871-1889
generation IV: 16 ancestors
birth years range: 1832-1864
generation V: 32 ancestors
birth years range: 1786-1833
generation VI: 64 ancestors
birth years range: 1750-1812


~ ~ ~


First names in generations VI and VII (birth year range: 1715-1812)

Fathers freq.    Mothers freq. 
Jan 20 Maritje / Marijtje / Maartje 14
Pieter 12 Antje (8) / Anna (1) 9
Klaas 11 Grietje 8
Cornelis 7 Jantje / Jannetje 7
Dirk 6 Neeltje 7
Jacob 6 Trijntje 7
Ariën (4) / Adrianus (1) 5 Dieuwertje 6
Gerrit 4 Elisabeth / Lijsbeth 6
Simon / Sijmen 3 Aafje 5
Abraham 2 Geertje / Gerritje 5
Aris 2 Guurtje 4
Joris 2 Aaltje 2
Maarten 2 Ariaantje 2
Arend 1 Cornelisje 2
Elias 1 Dirkje 2
Floris 1 Immetje 2
Hendrik 1 Aagje / Agatha 1
Herke 1 Geesje 1
Hermen 1 Hiltje 1
Ide 1 Meinouwtje 1
Matthijs 1 Reinouwtje 1
Nien 1 Sijtje 1
Outjert 1 Vokeltje 1
Reijer 1 Wijntje 1
Rens 1
Sijbrand 1
Willem 1

21 December 2017

Chapters and Chronology


For my new English Oera Linda translation, I plan this chapter division (titles will be further improved).

Below I will suggest an alternative (more chronological) reading order of the various narratives, as well as a list of laws, poetry and teachings.


CONTENT - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - manuscript [page/line]

Letters of Instruction 
 A Hidde Oera Linda, 1256 CE- - - - - - [00a/01] - [00a/23]
 B Liko Ovira Linda, 803 CE - - - - - - [00b/01] - [00b/25]


The Book of Adela Followers
 1a- Council in Confusion - - - - - - -
[001/01] - [001/15]
 -b- Adela’s Advice - - - - - - - - - - [001/16] - [005/08]
 -c- Names of the Reeves
- - - - - - - - [005/08] - [005/28]
 2a- Festa, Take your Style - - - - - -
[005/30] - [006/11]
 -b- Our Primal History - - - - - - - - [006/12] - [006/32]
 -c1 Lyda was Black - - - - - - - - - -
[007/01] - [007/29]
 --2 Finda was Yellow - - - - - - - - - [007/30] - [009/17]
 --3 Frya was White - - - - - - - - - - [009/18] - [011/11]
 -d- Frya’s Tex
- - - - - - - - - - - - [011/13] - [014/08]
 -e1 Festa: Laws- - - - - - - - - - - -
[014/09] - [014/22]
 --2 Festa: Frya’s Day - - - - -  - - - [014/23] - [014/31]
 3a- Burg Laws
- - - - - - - - - - - - - [015/01] - [019/07]
 -b- General Laws
- - - - - - - - - - - [019/08] - [021/14]
 -c1 Laws for Army and War
- - - - - - - [021/15] - [023/06]
 --2 Mother and Kings at War- - - - - - [023/07] - [025/03]
 --3 Security and War Aftermath - - - - [025/04] - [026/20]
 4a- Minno: Preventing War- - - - - - - [026/21] - [027/10]
 -b- Laws for the Steersmen - - - - - - [027/12] - [029/10]
 -c1 Minno: Useful Precedents - - - - - [029/12] - [031/03]
 --2 Minno: Laws- - - - - - - - - - - - [031/04] - [032/01]
 --3 Minno: Aewa- - - - - - - - - - - - [032/01] - [033/21]
 -d- Minno: Minerva - - - - - - - - - - [033/22] - [039/05]
 -e- Minno: Kreta - - - - - - - - - - - [039/05] - [040/10]
 5a1 Three Principles - - - - - - - - -
[040/11] - [040/25]
 --2 Regulations and Penalties- - - - - [040/26] - [042/09]
 -b1 Punishments for Wrathful People- - [042/10] - [042/32]
 --2 Punishments for Bastards - - - - - [043/01] - [044/06]
 -c- Three Thieves- - - - - - - - - - - [044/07] - [044/27]
 6-- Yule, Script, Numbers
- - - - - - - [045/01] - [047/04]
 7a- Before the Bad Times
- - - - - - - [047/06] - [049/11]
 -b- How Aldland Sank-
-  - - - - - - - [049/11] - [050/18]
 8a- Magyars and Finns
- - - - - - - - - [050/19] - [053/12]
 -b1 Wodin
and the Magus- - - - - - - - [053/12] - [056/20]
 --2 Tunis and Inka Depart
- - - - - - - [056/21] - [057/32]
 --3 Tunis and the Thyrians - - - - - - [058/01] - [060/11]
 -c- The Idolatrous Gols
- - - - - - - - [060/12] - [061/27]
 9a- The War of Kelta and Minerva
- - - [061/28] - [065/14]
 -b- Jon's Revenge
- - - - - - - - - - - [065/15] - [066/15]
 -c- Kelta and the Gols - - - - - - - - [066/15] - [068/16]
 -d- Jon and Minerva Resettle - - - - - [068/17] - [071/29]
 -e- The Geartmen Move to Pangab
- - - - [072/05] - [075/07]
10a- Ulysus' Quest for a Lamp
- - - - - [075/08] - [076/21]
 -b- Athenia: Racemixing and Decadence
- [076/22] - [079/10]
11a- Denmarks Lost
- - - - - - - - - - - [079/11] - [081/32]
 -b- Death of Frana
- - - - - - - - - - [082/01] - [085/11]
 -c- Death of the Magus - - - - - - - - [085/12] - [087/18]

Added by Oera Lindas 
12-- Adelbrost: Intrigues and Division- [087/19] - [089/32]
13a- Apollania
: Adel-Bond Alliance- - - [090/01] - [091/11]
 -b1 Brunno
: A Treacherous Maiden - - - [091/11] - [093/17]
 --2 Death of Adela
- - - - - - - - - - [093/18] - [095/19]
 --3 Ode to Adela
- - - - - - - - - - - [095/20] - [097/27]
 -c1 Primal Teachings 1
- - - - - - - - [097/29] - [099/32]
 --2 Primal Teachings 2
- - - - - - - - [100/01] - [103/25]
 -d- The Unsociable Man
- - - - - - - - [103/26] - [106/09]
 -e1 Apollania’s Burg
- - - - - - - - - [106/10] - [108/27]
 --2 Apollania’s Journey- - - - - - - - [108/28] - [113/21]
14a- Frethorik: Fryasland Swamped - - - [113/23] - [117/20]
 -b- Gosa: Expulsion of Blacks
- - - - - [117/20] - [118/31]
 -c- A Fleet Arrives
- - - - - - - - - - [118/32] - [120/10]
 -d1 Alexander the King
- - - - - - - - [120/10] - [125/05]
 --2 Demetrius and Friso
- - - - - - - - [125/05] - [130/20]
 -e- Northland
- - - - - - - - - - - - - [130/21] - [131/25]
 -f- Defects of the Lowlanders
- - - - - [131/26] - [133/26]
15a- Wilyo
from the Saxonmarks- - - - - [133/17] - [134/21]
 -b1 Hellenia: Princes and Priests
- - - [134/22] - [136/07]
 --2 Yesus or Buda, Krisen, Fo- - - - - [136/08] - [141/25]
 -c- Frana’s Will - - - - - - - - - - - [141/26] - [142/01]
 -d- Gosa’s Will
- - - - - - - - - - - - [142/01] - [142/32]
16a- Koneread: Canals and Dykes
- - - - [143/01] - [144/16]
 -b1 Friso: Alliances
- - - - - -- - - - [144/17] - [150/19]
 --2 Friso: Praise and Suspicion
- - - - [150/19] - [154/17]
 --3 Adel and Ifkia
- - - - - - - - - - [154/17] - [157/32]
 -c- Gosa: Purity of Language
- - - - - [157/32] - [163/09]
 -d- Ljudgeart: Pangab Report
- - - - - [163/10] - [168/19]
17-- Beaden, Son of Haechgaena
- - - - - [168/20] - [168/32]
 (missing pages: 20)

18-- Rika: Stealing of Titles - - - - - [189/01] - [192/32]
 (missing pages: 2)

19a- Askar Prepares for War - - - - - - [195/01] - [198/19]
 -b- Streams of Blood
- - - - - - - - - [198/19] - [202/06]
 -c- Reyntia’s Dream
- - - - - - - - - - [202/06] - [204/32]
 -d- Askar Lost to Idolatry
- - - - - - [205/01] - [207/14]
 -e- How Punishment Came
- - - - - - - - [207/14] - [208/17]
 -f- Askar’s Failure
- - - - - - - - - - [208/17] - [210/32]
 (missing pages: ?)



Alternative reading order of separate narratives


EVENTS BEFORE AND AFTER ADELA'S ADVICE
11a- Denmarks Lost - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 591 BCE
 -b- Death of Frana- - - - - - - - - - - - - - 589 BCE
 -c- Death of the Magus- - - - - - - - - - - - ,,
12-- Adelbrost: Intrigues and Division - c.588-560 BCE
 1a- Council in Confusion- - - - - - - - - - c.559 BCE
 -b- Adela’s Advice
13b1 Brunno: A
Treacherous Maiden- - - - - - c.558 BCE
 --2 Death of Adela- - - - - - - - - - -
- - c.557 BCE
13a- Apollania: Adel-Bond Alliance - - - c.557-500 BCE


MIGRATIONS AND REMIGRATION
 9a- The War of Kelta and Minerva- - - - - -c.1630 BCE
 -b- Jon's Revenge
 -c- Kelta and the Gols
 -d- Jon and Minerva Resettle
 4d- Minno: Minerva

 -e- Minno: Kreta
 9e- The Geartmen Move to Pangab - - - - - -c.1550 BCE
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
10b- Athenia: Racemixing and Decadence - - -c.1200 BCE
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 
16d- Ljudgeart: Pangab Report
14d1 Alexander the King- - - - - - - - - - - c.327 BCE
 --2 Demetrius and Friso
14c- A Fleet Arrives - - - - - - - - - - - - c.303 BCE


MORE TO BE ADDED...

19 December 2017

Inventory of earlier Oera Linda translations

The publisher of my first choice has declared to be "most definitely" interested in the new English (professionally proofread) translation and was sent the current (not-final) version to read.

It will be the first printed English translation to be straight from the original language, as the one by Sandbach (1876) was based on the first Dutch one by Ottema (1872). The Sandbach translation was the basis for most other (non-Dutch/German) ones.

A very literal (but not proofread by a native) English translation was made by the Norwegian Hans Olav Lien some years ago (link in table below) and currently only accessible in the web archives.

The earlier translations (known to me) that were straight from the original language are:

Dutch:
Ottema - 1872, 1876
Overwijn - 1941, 1951
Jensma - 2006 (1)
De Heer - 2008 (2)
(1) This is the only translation that was based on the assumption that the text is a 19th Century forgery, meant as a joke.
(2) Translation is relatively similar to Overwijn but uses unique Yule-font for transcription of the original text.

German:
Wirth - 1933 (some parts were left out)
Menkens - 2013

Norse and improvised English:
Lien - 2013 (web-only)

~ ~ ~

Chronological list of Oera Linda translations (known to me)

year author language title publisher
1872/ 1876 J.G. Ottema Dutch Thet Oera Linda Bok H. Kuipers, Leeuwarden (1, 2)
1933 W.R. Sandbach English The Oera Linda Book Trübner & co., London
1933 H. Wirth German Die Ura Linda Chronik Koehler & Amelang, Leipzig
1941/ 1951 J.F. Overwijn Dutch Het Oera Linda Boek N.V. Enkhuizer Courant/ Chefferd
1992 U. & J. Hamilton Swedish Oera-Linda : en Fornfrisisk Krönika Cradle Publications
1998 A. Snyman Afrikaans Die Oera Linda boek Vaandel-Uitgewers, Mosselbaai
2004 A. Soldani Italian Oera Linda il libro, pagine di storia dimenticate web-only
2006 G. Jensma Dutch Het Oera Linda-boek Verloren, Hilversum
2007 J. Fermaut* French Le livre des Oera Linda selfpublished, Bierne
2008 S. de Heer Dutch ЋET OERA LINDA BOK self-published, Amsterdam
2012 A. Pietrykowska Polish Ksiñega Oera Linda Armoryka, Sandomierz
2013 H. Menkens German Die Oera-Linda-Handschriften Lühe-Verlag, Süderbrarup
2013 H.O. Lien Norse/ (English) Oera Linda-boka/ (The Oera Linda Book) web-only
2017 D. Campayo Bustos Spanish Oera Linda - un manuscrito del siglio XIII web-only
2018 J. Ott English to be announced to be announced

* Fermaut translated the Dutch translation of Ottema.

Note: the English translation that was published as an appendix to "Survivors of the Great Tsunami" (2010/2011) and "Chronicles from pre-Celtic Europe" (renamed third edition, 2014), self-published by A.J. Raubenheimer were edited versions of the Sandbach translation.

Translations in my collection:

...
Other:


...

28 November 2017

THJANJA - Diana - dienen

Diana as witch on St. Nicholas altar piece
of 1485, Mühlhausen, Thüringen Germany
(full altar and description below)
Diana is well known as the goddess of hunt, the moon, childbirth, women and nature from Roman mythology. Along with Minerva and Vesta, she was one of the three maiden goddesses, who had sworn never to marry. Less known is that in medieval Germany she was considered mistress of witches and still as dea paganorum: pagan goddess, hundreds of years after the Romans had left.

Was Diana introduced into Germany by the Romans, or had she been a Germanic deity or Mother long before the Romans came?


Wikipedia:
Diana was worshipped at a festival on August 13, when King Servius Tullius, himself born a slave, dedicated her temple on the Aventine Hill in the mid-6th century BC. Being placed on the Aventine, and thus outside the pomerium, meant that Diana's cult essentially remained a foreign one, like that of Bacchus; she was never officially transferred to Rome as Juno was after the sack of Veii. It seems that her cult originated in Aricia, (...)

German Wikipedia (translated):
Nothing was passed down about an initial Diana myth - independent of Greek mythology -, as Diana was identified very early already  and almost completely with the Greek Artemis. The Greek myths were adopted with substitution of the Greek deities by their Roman equivalents.

In the Oera Linda-book, a female deity or divine Mother Thjanja is mentioned along with Frya, Fàsta, Médéa, "and many others" (fragment below). This name also appears many times in the manuscript as verb, meaning to serve, which still has equivalents in several North European languages:

dienen - Dutch, German
tsjinje - Frisian
tjene - Danish, Norwegian
tjäna - Swedish
þjóna, thjóna - Icelandic

Diana by Paul Bergon (1863-1912)
A Dutch female name is Dina (varieties Dine, Diena, Dientje, etc.; perhaps also Tina, Tinka, Tanja, etc.). Origin and meaning are unclear among the specialists. I would suggest that like Diana, it is derived from thiania: dienen.

Oldfrisian dictionaries

Wiarda (1786)
tinia, tyena, thiania - to serve
thianst, thianest - service
thianster - witch (!)

Hettema (1832)
thiania, tjaenje - to serve
thiansta, tjaenst - service, servant
thianster, tjaonster - witch (!)

Richthofen (1840)
thiania, tienia - to serve
thianer, tiener - servant
thianost, thianest, thianst, tienst - service

Note that in OLB the spelling for witch (besides HEX) is "THJONSTER", and no relation to "THJANJA" (to serve) is suggested: [034/15] AS THV THÀN NÉN THJONSTER NE BISTE


Fragment in Oera Linda-book


[132/21]
HWERSA IMMAN EN BYLD MÁKATH ÀFTER ÉNNEN VRSTURVEN ÀND THET LIKT
SÁ LÁWATH HJA THÀT THENE GÁST THES VRSTURVENE THÉR INNE FÁRATH.
THÉRVR HÀVATH HJA ALLE BYLDA VRBURGEN. 

FON FRYA. FÀSTA. MÉDÉA. THJANJA. HELLÉNJA ÀND FÉLO ÔTHERA.

(translation Ott, not yet published:)
When someone makes an image of a dead person and it shows a good likeness, 
they believe that the ghost of the departed resides in it. 
They therefore hide all images 
of Frya, Festa, Medea, Diana, Hellenia and many others.

(translation Sandbach, 1876:)
When they make a statue of a dead person 
they believe that the spirit of the departed enters into it; 
therefore they have hidden their statues 
of Frya, Fâsta, Medea, Thiania, Hellenia, and many others.

(For other fragments with THJANJA used as verb, see post of March 30, 2012.)

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