25 May 2018

1699 book review of "De Frisiorum Antiquitate"

Transcription (made by me, JO) of a 1699 English book review about De Frisiorum Antiquitate (Ancient Frisian History) by Suffridus Petrus (1527-1597), as found on pages 78-84 of
The History of the Works of the Learned. Or, An Impartial Account of Books Lately Printed in all Parts of Europe. With a Particular Relation of the State of Learning in each Country.

Dr. Suffridus Petrus (1527-1597)

The following part being of special interest in relation to the Oera Linda-book:

"Freso [...] came from an Indian Province called Benedicta Fresia; where having served under Alexander the Great, and not daring to stay in the Country after his Death, took Shipping with what they could bring off [...] the Saxons were some Remains of the Macedonian Army; and that before they came into Germany, they were called Macedonians, for this he quotes the German Chronicle, printed at Mentz, in 1482, the Annals of Freezland, and others. His next Proof for this is Ancient Rhimes, Constant Tradition, and the Universal Opinion of the Frisons, who have entertained it from Father to Son Successively, and convey'd it to one another by Rhimes, a Custom, says he, which the most prudent Nations have made use of, as the readiest Preservative against Oblivion. [...] As a further Proof of this, he alledges, that the Frisons were constantly great Lovers of Learning, and therefore could easily preserve their Origin and Antiquities from Oblivion. He says also, that Freso, their Founder, was versed in all the Learning of the Greeks, and erected a fort of Academies in many places, where Youth were instructed in Learning, and the Art of War; and that he erected one particularly at Stavren, near Stavo's Temple, and placed a great Library in the Temple it self."

[for scans of original, see below]
[p.78] De Frisiorum Antiquitate; & Origine Libri tres. In quibus non Modo ejus Gentis propriae, fed & Communis Germaniae totius Antiquitates Multae, hactenus incognitae, produntur; & obscuri Veterum Scriptorum Loci plurimi illustrantur. Autore Suffrido Petro. Leovardensi Frisio U.J.C. Franequerae 1698. 12° pag. 574.

_ The learned Author hath published this Book as a Proemium to a larger Work of 60 Books, wherein he designs to comprehend all the History and Antiquity of Freezland.
_ He hath divided this Book into three Parts. In the first, he confutes the erroneous Opinions concerning the Origine of the Freezlanders. In the second, he answers some Objections against what he advances; and in the third, he confirms his own Opinon by Arguments. [p.79]
_ The Antiquity of the Freezlanders is demonstrable from this, that they are mentioned in the oldest Greek and Latin Authors, by the same Name they now enjoy. And Strabo, Ptolomy, Tacitus and others assign them the same Country which they now possess. But the rest of the Germans have all of them changed their Antient Habitations or Names: for that Country called Saxony, is not the same which Ptolomy assigns to the Antient Saxons, and the Names of Holland, Over-Issel, Gelderland, Westphalia, and other Neighbouring Countries are new, and no where to be found in Antient Writers. Our Author thinks it very considerable, that the Freezlanders have Annals of 2000 Years standing, that they can produce from their Archives, which, he is of Opinion, are not only sufficient to prove the Antiquity of the Freezlanders, but may give great Light to the affairs of the Romans, transacted in Germany; and also to those of the Danes, French, Saxons and Dutch. He begins the Freezland Aera 313 Years before Christ, since which their Commonwealth hath undergone 4 considerable Changes; so that they can give the Express number of Years,that they were govern'd by Princes, Dukes and Kings, till the time of Charlemagne, how long they were govern'd by States, till the time of the Anarchy, how long by Factions, till the time of Charles V. and how long they have been govern'd by Lords, till this day. He says the Origin of the Town of Stavren is as Ancient as that of their Princes, that it was formerly the Capital of the Kingdom of Freezland, and enjoys this prerogative above all the Han's Towns, that their Ships must be allowed the first Passage through the Sound, and others must wait till they be passed.
_ Our Author in his Enquiry, Whether the Freezlanders be Indigene or Advenae, first distinguishes betwixt the Acceptation of those Words by the Heathens and Chtistians. The Heathen, when they could not trace the Origine of Nations, used to call them Terrigenae, i.e. Earth-born, as if they had at first sprung up out of the Land they inhabited. And those who transplanted themselves from other Countries they called Advenae, or Strangers. But Christians being better informed by the Holy Scriptures, know that the Origin of all Nations must be derived from Noah and his Family, and therefore call those Indigenae, who have still possessed those Countries they inhabited first after the Flood, and those who have transplanted themselves into other Countries they call Advenae. In the former sense Crantzius, Rhenanus, Nuenarius and many others, call the Germans Indigenae, and Guicciardin calls the Freezlanders so upon [p.80] the same Account, but our Author proves the contrary as to the latter from their own Archives.
_ He confutes the Opinion of these who think the Country took its Name from an Accident, as that the Emperour Valentinian called it Freezland, because of its Cold, it being ridiculous that he should call it so in their own common Dialect. He rejects also the Opinion of those that derived the Name from the Phrygians, which is Synonimous with that of the Francs, and that they were fo called, for asserting their Liberty, because then, says he, other Nations who shook off the Yoke of Slavery, would have been called by the same Name; and therefore he is of Opinion, that the Country was so called from Friso, the Founder of the Nation.
_ In the ninth Chapter of his first Book, he gives a succinct Chronology of Freezland, from the beginning of the Nation, to the time of Charlemagne, which in brief is thus; Friso landed in Germany in the year 313 before Christ, and possess'd himself of that part of the Northern Coast, betwixt the Chersonesus Cimbrica, and the lowest Branch of the Rhine, those Countries he divided betwixt his 7 Sons, and called them Zeelands from their Situation. Our Author thinks that the care of restraining Inundations by Banks, Bulwarks, Water-Mills, &c. was committed to him by the People of the North, whence it came to pass that the Freezlanders gain'd a great part of the Land they now possess out of the Sea. Our Author thinks likewise that he was intrusted by those of the South, with the care of the Passes and Publick Roads from Jutland to the Rhine, and that by Garrisons of his Frison's he defended Merchants and Travellers from Thieves and Robbers; and hence they had Tolls and Customs allowed them as a Compensation, a power of making their own Laws, and Freedom from Foreign Wars; so that they were not obliged to send Soldiers out of their own Country. They had likewise many other Priviledges and Immunities allowed them, of which some were confirmed by Augustus Caesar, afterwards by Charlemagne, then by Charles V. and Philip II. of Spain.
_ The Freezlanders were at first governed by 7 Princes, whose Reigns amounted in the whole to 443 Years, to them succeded 7 Dukes, who governed 262 Years. They were followed by 9 Kings, who reigned 383 Years; in the whole 1088 Years. Stavren continued to be the Metropolis of the Country for 193 Years, there the Prince fixed the Seat of his Government, and administred the same, over his 7 Zeelands by Governours and Judges. About the Year [p.81] before Christ, 120. Friso, Jun. Son to Grunus, the Founder of Groningen, married the Daughter of Ubbo, Prince of Freezland, and receiving Forces from his own Father, and his Father-in-Law, planted a Colony in a desolate Island, Westward, beyond the most Easterly Branch of the Rhine, and called it New Freezland, after his own Name, and chose a Seat for himself in it, which was about a Mile from that place, where afterwards Alcmaer was built. There he laid the Foundation of a City, and called it after his Wife's Name Froungast; and by some it was called Vrongeist and Vrontegeist. Afterwards this City encreased wonderfully, and became a great Mart-Town, and the Romans called it Verona, by. reason of the Affinity between its Name, and that of Verona in Italy. And our Author saith, that this may solve the difficulty that is found in the Story of the 11000 Virgins. For some, when they read that the Virgins loosed from Britain, and were driven by Tempest into Verena, knowing no other Verona but that in Italy, did groundlesly put Bonne initead of Verona. This is the truth of that History, which our Author says ignorance hath corrupted; it being no ways incredible that they were driven into Verona in Freezland, when there was an easie Passage from Britain into that Port.
_ Our Author says, that those things which Tacitus, l. 4. mentions as done by the Freezlanders, are to be referred to this West Freezland; as the nearness of Freezland to Battavia, which Tacitus insinuates, seems to require: For about 150 Years after the planting that Colony, the Romans made Olennius, a Noble Man, and one skilled in Military Affairs, Governour of Freezland. This Olennius, as our Author says, was called in the Language of his Country Holle, which signifies a Jolt-head, for the Freezlanders call the Head en Holle. Their Annals likewise give us the following Account why about those times the Name of Freezland was changed, which had alfo been imposed on this Country. Olennius, above mention'd, collecting the Tribute with too much rigor, did thereby force the Freezlanders to rebel, and brought them into great Calamities, whereupon they called this Country Holle Landt, by way of contempt, and from thence came the Name of Holland.
_ He adds, that those New, or Western Freezlanders continued 420 Years under an Aristocratical Government; so that during this interval very few or none of their Princes are mentioned. However, they enlarged their Territories westward towards Brabant and Flanders. But afterwards about the 300 Year of Christ, and the 2d of Haro, Duke of Old Freezland, Didericus, Haro's Nephew, taking [p.82] with him four others of his Kinsmen, he carried a new Colony into that part of West Freezland, now called Waterland, and which at that time was not habitable, because of the frequent Inundations, and wild Woods. Didericus built Medemblick, which was the Metropolis of New Freezland, and this Colony joining with the other, they enlarged their Dominions so far towards the West, that they grew equal almost to a duly proportioned Kingdom. Bur when Didericus, whose Ambition advanced with his Fortune, assumed a Crown and the Title of King, instead of that of Duke, Haro, Duke of East Freezland looking upon it as absurd, that the Vassal should seem to be of greater Dignity than his Lord, made War with him, and deposed him. His Successors however did afterwards reassume the Royal Diadem, about the Year of Christ 392. from which time it began to be called the Kingdom of Freezland, and was divided into two Sovereignties, the Metropolis of East Freezland being Stavren, and that of West Freezland Medenblick. The Race of Didericus, the West Freezland King failed not long after in Elinus, who adopted Beroald Son to the King of East Freezland, and soon after died; so that about the Year of Christ 533. Beroaldus succeeded to both, and after having reign'd happily for about 60 Years, was deprived of his Life and Kingdom by Clotharius II. King of France, about the Year of Christ 593. His Son Adgill succeeded, and after him there reigned four other Princes, who sometimes agreed, and at other times differed with the French, till the time of Charlemagne, who overcame Radbod the Second, and restored the Freezlanders to their Ancient Liberty.
_ Our Author in the next place makes a large Digression about the Origin of the German Name. He differs from Tacitus, who thinks that Name was given them but a little before his time, and says, it rather grew obsolete not long after. He is also of opinion, that the Name of Teutons is still much later, and derives the Name from Togarma, mentioned in the 10th of Genesis, by taking away the first Syllable, changing Gorma into Germa, and thence forming Germanus.
_ He confutes those who derive the Origin of the Freezlanders from the Hyperboreans, or from a Colony ot Jews, sent to Freezland by Vespasian after the Destruction ot Jerusalem, and says this last Fable is more applicable to part of Pomerland, where the Country-men at Plow constantly sing one Note, like the Cuccow, and cry, Jeru Vespa, Jeru Vespa, Jeru Vespa, in remembrance [p.83] of their Antient Country, destroyed by Vespasian, as they alledge.
_ He likewise confutes the Opinion of their being descended from Frisius, Son to Clogio, King of France, and that his Posterity paid a Tribute of 260 Oxen to the French, as a Token of Homage, and thinks it rather true, that the French derive their Origin from the Freezlanders, according to Beatus Rhenarus and Adrianus Junius.
_ Then he attacks the Opinion of those who say, the Frison's are descended from Grunius the Trojan, the Builder of Groningen, and therefore writ them Phrysii, as nearer the Phryges their Progenitors, and at last tells us his own Sentiments, that Freso, the Founder of their Nation, with his Brethren Saxo and Bruno, came from an Indian Province called Benedicta Fresia; where having served under Alexander the Great, and not daring to stay in the Country after his Death, took Shipping with what they could bring off, and landing in this Country, called it Fresia, after his own Name.
_ This he insists upon at large in his Third Book, and thinks it the more probable, because the Story of Saxo, the Founder of the Saxon Nation, agrees with it. He says all Authors, Crantzius excepted, agree, That the Saxons were some Remains of the Macedonian Army; and that before they came into Germany, they were called Macedonians, for this he quotes the German Chronicle, printed at Mentz, in 1482, the Annals of Freezland, and others.
_ His next Proof for this is Ancient Rhimes, Constant Tradition, and the Universal Opinion of the Frisons, who have entertained it from Father to Son Successively, and convey'd it to one another by Rhimes, a Custom, says he, which the most prudent Nations have made use of, as the readiest Preservative against Oblivion. He tells us moreover, that all the Freezland Historians he hath seen, give their Suffrage this way.
_ As a further Proof of this, he alledges, that the Frisons were constantly great Lovers of Learning, and therefore could easily preserve their Origin and Antiquities from Oblivion. He says also, that Freso, their Founder, was versed in all the Learning of the Greeks, and erected a fort of Academies in many places, where Youth were instructed in Learning, and the Art of War; and that he erected one particularly at Stavren, near Stavo's Temple, and placed a great Library in the Temple it self. [p.84]
_ In the next place, he acquaints us, that both Frison and Saxon Historians agree as to Saxo, and that the People of Freezland, Saxony and Brunswick had formerly one and the same Language, and form of Government.
_ Then he gives us an Account of the Arms of the Saxons and Frisons, from the Heraulds Books, and says, that when Friso had the Defence of the German Ocean committed to his Charge, his Arms were in a blue Field, three Silver Bars, oblique from the right to the left, betwixt them 7 red Leaves of a Water Rose, 4 betwixt the Dexter and the middle Bar, and 3 betwixt that and the Sinister. These, says our Author, were the most Ancient Arms of the Frisons, and proves that they were used by their Princes, Dukes and Kings, and that the 7 Leaves signified 7 Islands, into which Freezland was formerly divided. Saxo's Coat, he tells us, was also a blew Field, divided in the middle by a cross Line, from the right to the left, under the same; at the dexter Point, there was a Lion, and at the sinister Point a Draggon, their Heads almost joined, and looking upon one another, with a pleasant Aspect. In the upper part there was an Eagle flying with expanded wings, looking upon both. In this place, he confutes Crantzius, who says, that those are but New Bearings, and that Wittekind, Duke of Saxony, who was overcome by Charmagne, carried in his Ensigns a black Colt, but when he turn'd Christian, changed it into a white one. He proves from Methodius, who is many Centuries elder than Wittekindus, that the Saxons in his time impressed a Lion upon their Coin. He observes, that Wittekindus was not King of the Saxons, but one of those twelve Princes (or Great Men) that governed Saxony by turns; and therefore bore the Arms of the Country, and not his own. He also quotes Wittikind the Monk, who in his 1st Book of Hatthagar, D. of Saxony, says, that when he encouraged his Men to Battle, he took up the Standard or Ensign (which they account Sacred) impressed with a Lion and Dragon, and an Eagle hovering over them, by which he would represent Fortitude and Prudence, and their Efficacy, and express constancy of Mind by the Motion of the Body.
_ In the rest of his Book he enquires after the Indian Fresia, and thinks it to be the Pharrasii mentioned by Curtius, beyond the Ganges. He pretends to trace Freso's Genealogy, as far as Shem, one of Noah's Sons, and gives an Account of the Travels of Freso and his Brethren, &c. all which is submitted to the Readers Censure, it being applicable to Antiquaries better than to any other sort of Men.

Qui bene conjexit Vatem hunc perhibebo optimum.

Downloadable PDF of these pages here.

17 May 2018

12 May 2018

Second video, discussing four topics

Four examples of discussion, about themes surrounding the Oera Linda-book:
(time in video:)
01:00 Alleged suicide of Dr. Ottema and his supposed reason for that; possible motives for cultural establishment to have silenced him and discourage possible followers.
06:05 Theoretical involvement of Joost Halbertsma and Ernst Stadermann in the alleged 19th century creation of the manuscript; some reasons why this is not plausible.
09:34 Wheel-based symbols; why it does not make sense that they were designed by an assumed 19th century forger.
13:08 Plausibility of overseas trade and contacts between Mediterraneans and Northern Europeans, long before our year zero.

Notes may be added here later.

05 May 2018

Video reply about four OLB words


~ ~ ~

 Additional information about ('near and far') Greece / Krékalanda:

Southern Italy used to be called Great-Greece (similar to Great-Britain versus Brittany).

The Griko people (Greek: Γκρίκο), sometimes spelt Grico, Greco in Calabria, and also known as Grecanici, are an ethnic Greek community of Southern Italy.

Note that Γκρίκο transliterated is Gkriko. (Credits for this info to Karel Anker!)

More notes may be added here later.

04 May 2018

WR-ALDA related to Orotalt or Ruldai (and varieties)?

In 2013 I posted on a discussion forum about a possible link between Wralda ('the most ancient', God, world) of Oera Linda and the pre-Islamic Arabian god Orotalt or Ruldai (and varieties). As I think this can be an important clue for future reference, I reorganised the various sources, sorted by year.

1) Thaleia III-8 by Herodotus (440 BCE) and translations

ὀνομάζουσι δὲ τὸν μὲν Διόνυσον Ὀροτάλτ,
τὴν δὲ Οὐρανίην Ἀλιλάτ.

(George Rawlinson, 1860)
Bacchus they call in their language Orotal,
and Urania, Alilat.

(George Campbell Macaulay, 1890)
Now they call Dionysos Orotalt
and Urania they call Alilat.

(Shlomo Felberbaum, 2003)
And they name Dionysus Orotalt
and Urania Alilat.

2) Sources 17th - 19th century

1682 - Curieuse Aenmerckingen der bysonderste Oost en West-Indische Verwonderens-waerdige Dingen, Deel IV, Simon de Vries p. 1023
"By d'Arabiers salfden de Bond-verwanten seven Stenen met haer eygen Bloed; roepende daer by den Urotalt en Alilat: Welcke eenige voor Dionysius en Urania houden" source

c. 1690 - Draft chapters of a treatise on the origin of religion and its corruption, Isaac Newton
"Bacchus was the proper god of the Arabians & therefore their common father. ffor Herodotus (lib 3 initio) tells us Arabes Dionysium quem Vrotalt & Vraniam quam Alilat appellant [id est Bacchum et Venerem] solos Deorum esse arbitrantur: ..." source

1728 - De Diis Germanis, Elias Schedivs, p.157
"Arabes alias, teste Herodot. in Clio, Solem dixerunt Vrotalt, id est, Lucis Deum, itemque Dusarem, vel Daisarem, id est, perlustrantem Deum." source

1741 - Algemeene histori van het begin der wereld af tot den tegenwoordigen tyd toe, Volume 2, translated from English by Kornelis Westerbaen, p.423
"Een hedensdaegsch Schrijver (1) meent, dat d'Arabiërs en Ismaëliten eertijds Bacchus en Urania of Venus in dien tempel dienden: want Herodotus verhaelt, datze geene andere godheden, dan deeze hebben aengebeden, d'eerste van welke zij Urotalt, en de laetste Alilat noemen (2); hoewel andere laeter Schrijvers zeggen, datze ook Jupiter, de zon, maen, en de demons aenbaden (3). Hoe het hiermede gelegen zij, of niet, het is allerwaerschijnlijkst, dat d'altaer en het bosch, van Abraham te Berseba opgerecht (4), d'eerste gelegenheid tot deeze verziering heeft gegeeven, dat die tempel door hem gebouwd is." source

1769 - Maandelyksche berichten uit de andere waereld of de sprekende dooden (February), p.122
"Zo is door den geleerden Calmet aangetoond, dat de Arabiers en Ismaëliten, eertyd Bacchus en Urama of Venus in dien tempel dienden; zo verhaalt ook Herodotus, dat ze geene anderen Godheden dan deeze hebben aangebede, de eerste van welke zy Urotalt, en de laatste Alilat noemden; hoe wel Strabo, een later schryver, verzekerd, dat ze, in vervolg van tyd Jupiter, de Zon, Maan en Demons aanbaden; doch hoe ze aan het verdichtsel zyn gekomen, dat Abraham dien tempel heeft gebouwd, weet mogelyk niemand te zeggen." source

1792 - Bijbel der natuur - Twaalfde deel, Johann Jacob Scheuchzer, vertaling L. Meijer, p.623
Register: "Uranus Urotalt, de Zon. III.1109. IX.657" source

1811 - Buch des Kabus oder Lehren des persischen Königs Kjekjawus für seinen Sohn Ghilan Schach, Kaika'us Ibn-Iskanda, translated by Heinrich F. von Diez, p.211
"Zu Zeiten Hiobs aus Esaus Geschlecht nemlich haben die Araber, wie obgedacht, Gott in der Wahrheit erkannt, und wenn wir die Abfassung dieses Buchs ins Jahr der Welt 2300 oder, wie einige wollen, noch etwas weiter zurück näher an die Zeiten Jacobs setzen, der im Jahre der Welt 2255 starb: so müssen wir urtheilen, dass sie zwölf Jahrhunderte vor Herodot noch im Besitz der unverfälschten Offenbarung gewesen. Wir müssen ferner annehmen, dass sie vom rechten Wege noch nicht abgewichen waren im Jahre der Welt 2952, als die Königin von Saba nach Jerusalem kam, welches 548 Jahre vor Herodot geschehen. Allein zur Zeit des letztem waren die Araber schon Götzendiener geworden, denn dieser Geschichtschreiber, welcher seine Geschichte ums Jahr der Welt 3500 schrieb, folglich 1112 Jahre zuvor, ehe Muhammed zu lehren angefangen, meldet, dass die Araber den Bacchus und die Urania verehrten. Den erstem nennt er mit einem verdorbenen arabischen Worte Urotalt und die letztere heisst er Alitta und Alilat. Urotalt soll wahrscheinlich Utarid (...) seyn, welches sonst Mercurius bedeutet, der vom Stamme Asad verehrt ward ." source

1831 - Geographie der Griechen und Römer aus ihren Schriften dargestellt, Konrad Mannert, p.24-25
"... nennen den Dionysus Urotalt (Ουροταλτ) ... Urotal erklärt er für Erat-allah, Gott des Feuers...
Ob der Gott Urotalt, welchen Herodot so wie die Allita blos dey den nördlichern Arabern hatte kennen lernen, einerley mit der Hauptgottheit der südlichern Länder ist, weiss ich nicht zu sagen. ...
... Sonne und Mond (welches immer noch Urotalt und die Alitta bezeichnen kann), ... Zuverlässig aber wurde Bacchus, welchen Herodot Urotalt nennt, in der Legend von Mecca auch unter dem Namen Dusares oder Dysares verehrt; ..." source

1880 - Das orakelwesen im Alterthume, Franziska Hoffmann, p.20
"Das Bakidische Orakel auf Creta.
Wenn man den Zusammenhang zwischen dem Orient und Griechenland, zwischen dem Mysterien- und dem Orakelwesen festhalten will, so ist es nöthig die Verknüpfung zu kennen, in welcher der orientalische Bakis oder Bacchos zu dem griechischen Apollo stand. Im Anfange hatten die Griechen nur ausländische Götter, welche sie nationalisirten, später durch einheimische ersetzten und deren verschiedene Mythen mit einander verschmolzen. So auch gab es zwei Bacchosgötter. Der zweite Bacchos war Dionysos, Sohn der Semele; der erste war nach Herodot der arabische Gott Ourotalt, dessen Dienst von den Syriern und Phöniziern angenommen worden war, ehe er durch Melampus und Cadmos den Griechen bekannt wurde. Er ist der eigentlich mystische Bacchos, Mittelpunkt der Zagreusmythe, Mittelpunkt der Sabaziusfabel, die mit dem Dienst von Samothrake verknüpft war; von ihm stammen die Eleusinischen Mysterien mit der Jacchosmythe; von ihm stammen die bacchischen Orgien, wobei die Bacchantinnen bekanntlich ein Rehkalb zerrissen und das rohe Fleisch davon assen." source

1892 - The Archaeology of the District - The Finds at the Great Zimbabwe Ruins, J.T.Bent, p.189-191
"... the creative powers of mankind.
A curious confirmation of this is found in the pages of Herodotus (Herod.Bk.III.par.8), who tells us:'The Arabians of all the gods only worshipped Dionysus, whom they called Ourotalt, and Urania;' that is to say, they worshipped the two deities which, in the mind of the father of history, represented in themselves all that was known of the mysteries of creation, pointing to the very earliest period of Arabian cult, prior ro the more refined religious development of the Sabaeo-Himyaritic dynasty, when Sun-worship, veneration for the great luminary which regenerated all animal and vegetable life, superseded the grosser forms of nature-worship, to be itself somewhat superseded or rather incorporated in a worship of all the heavenly luminaries, which developed as a knowledge of astronomy was aquired." source1 ; source2

3) Other sources

"According to the 5th century BCE Greek historian Herodotus, Orotalt was a god of Pre-Islamic Arabia whom he identified with Dionysus [...]
Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions states that Orotalt is a phonetic transcription of the name of the sun god Ruda."

wikipedia/Ruda (deity)
"Ruda is a deity that was of paramount importance in the Arab pantheon of gods worshipped by the North Arabian tribes of pre-Islamic Arabia. [...]
The oldest reference to Ruda is found in the annals of Esarhaddon who ruled over the Assyrian empire from 681 to 669 BC. The name is transliterated into English from the original Akkadian as Ru-ul-da-a-a-ú and he is mentioned among the gods of the Arabs."

The Esarhaddon Prism (Neo-Assyrian, c. 672 BC), Library of Ashurbanipal (found Nineveh, North Iraq 1927) source1 ; source2
Inscription column 4 transliteration(9) aš-šu na-dan ilâni{pl}-su u-ṣal-la-an-ni-ma ri-e-mu ar-ši-šu-ma (10) {ilu}A-tar-sa-ma-a-a-in {ilu}Da-a-a {ilu}Nu-ḫa-a-a (11) {ilu}Ru-ul-da-a-a-u {ilu}A-bi-ri-il-lu (12) {ilu}A-tar-ḳu-ru-ma-a ilâni{pl} ša {am}A-ri-bi (13) an-ḫu-su-nu ud-diš-ma da-na-an {ilu}Aššur bêli-ia (14) u ši-ṭir šumi-ia eli-šu-nu aš-ṭur-ma u-tir-ma ad-din-šu
(9) For the return of his gods he prayed me and I showed him favour and (10) the gods Atarsamain, Dai, Nuhai, (11) Ruldaiu, Abirillu, (12) Atarkuruma, the gods of the Arabians, (13) their ruined (effigies) I restored and the might of Ashur, my lord, (14) and the writing of my name upon them I wrote and gave them back to him.

"Ruldaiu was a god featured in Arab mythology according to the Annals of Sennacherib (eighth century BC). Arabic inscriptions mention a god called Ruda. Herodotus calls him Ortalt."
http://nabataea.net/kedar.html (Dan Gibson)
Regarding their religion, Assyrian inscriptions tell us that Sennacherib captured of several Arabian deities in the Kedarite city of Dumah. The chief deity was Atarsamain, or the morning star of heaven. (the counterpart of Mesopotamian Ishtar). The tribal league led by the Kedarites was known as "the confederation of Atarsamain, and their cult was led by a series of queen-priestesses in Dumah. The rest of their pantheon of gods consisted of Dai, Nuhai (Nuhay), Ruldai (Ruda), Abirillu, and Atarquruma. Rock graffiti in the Thamudic language reveals that Ruda was known as the evening star, and Nuhay was the sun-god, and they were worshiped in addition to Atarsamain 'the morning star.' Herodotus, in the fifth century BC identified two deities worshiped among the Arabs, as a fertility god called Orotalt (perhaps Ruda, as identified by Macdonald in North Arabian in the First Millennium BC, 1360), and a sky goddess know as Allat. (Herodotus III,3.) Later Allat became referred to in the masculine form as Allah)

More about Rulaiu / Orotalt, possibly relevant, for later study:

From The Pagan God, Javier Teixidor (1977):

From The Pantheon of Palmyra, Javier Teixidor (1979):

28 April 2018

How did it sound? #7: E and É

One thing that becomes very clear when comparing the two probe texts, is that the copyist has been much less precise writing the letter to Okke than when he copied the primal history, as the E's are sometimes hardly recognisable. It looks like he wrote his intro in a hurry, which is also indicated by inconsistencies in spelling and choice of words (HÀB IK THAM vs. HÀB IK RA; SKRÉVEN vs. SKRÉVVEN).

As for the É and E, there is less mix up than with some of the other vowels, but there is some still, both between E and É, as with other sounds, for example:
Also, as we already saw, À is often interchangable with E:

The probe texts have enough examples to give a good impression of how the various words have changed or been preserved in our modern languages:

normal short and unstressed E (as in 'the' or 'written')

verb tenses ending -E (same in modern Dutch):
BÀRDE === (D) baarde, (E) birthed
ERVE === (D arch.) erve, (G) erbe
GLÍANDE === (D) gloeiende, (E) glowing
MAKADE === (D) maakte, (E)made
SKOLDE === (D) zoude, (E) should
SPISDE === (D) spijsde, (E) spised
WROCHTE === (D) wrochtte, (E) wrought

past perfect verb ending -EN (same in modern Dutch):BVNDEN === (D) gebonden, (E) bound
KÉMEN === (D) gekomen, (E) come
SKRÉVEN === (D) geschreven, (E) scribed/written
SVNKEN === (D) gezonken, (E) sunk
VRLÉDEN === (D) verleden (E: past)
WRDEN === (D) geworden (E: become)

adjective ending -E (same in modern Dutch):
ALLE === (D) alle, (E) all
ÀRGE === (D) erge, (G) arge
ÉLE === (D) hele, (E) whole
NIMMERTHE === (E: never)
-TIGOSTE === (D) -tigste, (E) -tiest
TWILIFTE === (D) twaalfde, (E) twelfth
WARME === (D) warme, (E) warm

two male names and other words ending -E:HIDDE === (name)
OKKE === (name)
FÉRSTE === (D) feest, (G) Feier, (E) fest
NE === (French:) ne (negative)
SE === (D) ze, (G) sie (E: they)
SÉLE === (D) ziel, (F) siel, (G) Seele, (E) soul
SKÉDNISE === (D) geschiedenis, (F) skiednis (E: history)
VMBE === (D arch.) omme, (G) um

ending -ER:
ÀFTER === (D) achter, (E) after
(verb)-ER === (G) er (E: he)
FJVWER === (D/G) vier, (F) fjouwer, (E) four
MODER === (D) moeder, (G) Mutter, (E) mother
NIMMER === (D/G) nimmer, (E) never
TOGHATER === (D) dochter, (G) Tochter, (E) daughter

other:EK === (D) elk, (E) each
-ET === (D) het
ERV- === (D) erv-, (G) erb-
HRED === (D) gered, (G) gerettet
HVNDRED === (D) honderd, (F) hûndert, (E) hundred
KERSTEN === (D/G) Christen, (E) Christian
MÀNNESKA === (D) mensen, (G) Menschen, (E) men (m/f)
OERA === (short for OVER-A/OVIR-A)
SEND === (D) zijn, (G) sind
SEX === (D) zes, (F) seis, (G) sechs, (E) six
THES === (D/G) des (E: of the)
WET === (F) wiet, (E) wet

long stressed É (ay/ea/ee/ei/ie)

É has in Dutch often become long ee/ie; in German ei/ee, in English ay/ea; sometimes it has remained e, become a or disappeared:
ALLÉNA === (D) aleen, (G) allein, (E) alone
DÉGUM === (D) dagen, (G) Tage, (E) days
ÉLE === (D) hele, (E) whole
ÉTHLUM === (E: ancestors)
ÉVG === (D) eeuwig, (G) ewig (E: eternally)
FÉRSTE === (D) feest, (G) Feier, (E) feast
HÉTA === (D) hete, (G) heisse, (E) hot
JÉR === (D) jaar, (F) jier, (G) Jahr, (E) year
KÉM- === (D) kwam/-kom-, (G) kam/-komm-, (E) came/come
KRÉION === (D) kregen, (G) kriegen
MANGÉRTA === vero: (D) -geerte
NÉI === (D) na, (F) nei, (G) nach, (E: after)
RÉKNONG === (D) rekening, (G) Rechnung, (E) reckoning
SÉLE === (D) ziel, (F) siel, (G) Seele, (E) soul
SKÉDNISE === (D) geschiedenis, (F) skiednis (E: history)
SKRÉVEN === (D) geschreven, (F) skreaun
THÉR === (D) daar, (G) da, (E) there
TVÉLF (must be TWELF) === (D) twaalf, (F) tolve, (G) zwölf, (E) twelve
TWÉN === (D) twee-, (G) zwei-/zwi-, (E) twin
VRLÉDEN === (D) verleden
WÉI === (D) weg, (F) wei, (G) weg, (E) away
WÉRON === (D/G) waren, (E) were
WÉSA === (D-dialect) wezen (E: be)

Disclaimer: The modern-word examples are never complete and rather serve to give a general idea ~ it would have been interesting to include Scandinavian varieties.

Note: the letter É on itself means water.
É.LAND === (D) eiland, (E) island, literally water-land (perhaps also used for peninsula)

27 April 2018

How did it sound? #6: I, J, Y and Í

As the other vowels, these letters -- transliterated by me as I, J, Y and Í -- are used far from consequently, but some rules of thumb will be listed.

The I-dot or J must have been like y in 'year' (German/ Dutch: j as in Jahr/ jaar). It is mostly used in the article THJU (the), in personal pronouns HJU (she), HJA (they), HJAM (them), HJARA (their), J (you, also spelled: I), and at the end of verbs (e.g. WÁRJA, WÉJA, FOLGJA).

Other personal pronouns also have an I-sound, for example: IK (I), MY, MIN (my), THIN (your), HI/HY/Y (he), HIM, HIS, (his/her), SIN/SYN (his, their, its), WI/WY (we).

The normal I is also used in articles THI (the), prepositions BI (by, also spelled BÍ or BY), IN, MITH (with), verb IS. Pronunciation will have been like i in is: short, unaccented.

The regular Y, with the spoke pointing up-left, has in many cases become the stretched Dutch 'ij'/'ei' or German 'ei' (this sound does not exist in English but is a bit like ai or eigh or i in 'side'), for example:
FRY ==== (D) vrij, (F) frij, (G) frei, (E) free
BRYN === (D/F) brein, (E) brain
BILYVA (also with Í) === (D) blijven, (F) bliuwe, (G) bleiben
YDEL === (D) ijdel, (F) idel, (G) eitel, (E) idle

However, in many Dutch and German dialects, these vowels are pronounced as a long ee in English free.

The Í with the spoke pointing right-up seems to often have more become a stretched ie in Dutch and German (ee in free or ea in tea):
FLÍ === (D arch.) vlieden, (G) fliehen, (E) flee
VRLÍSA === (D) verliezen, (F) ferlieze, (G) verlieren, (E: loose)
However, also often Dutch 'ij'/'ei' or German 'ei', just like the Y.

It is sometimes a variety of the long É:
SKÍDNIS for SKÉDNIS === (D) geschiedenis, (F) skiednis (E: history).
Or of the J:
LÍAF for LJAF === (D) lief, (F) leaf, (G) lieb, (E: dear).
Or the
I: SÍDE for SIDE === (D) zijde, (G) Seite, (E/F) side

Some more randomly chosen examples:

BINNA === (D/F) binnen
FIFTIGOSTE === (D) vijftigste, (F) fyftichste, (G) fünfzigste, (E) fiftiest
FINDA === (name, meaning:) (D) vinden, (F) fine, (G) finden, (E) find
KRÉION (also: KRYEN) === (D) kregen, (F) krije, (G) kriegen
KWIK === (D) kwiek/kwik, (F) kwyk/kwik, (E) quick
-ISK === (D/G) -isch, -ish
LIF === (D) lijf, (F) liif, (G) leib, (E) life
-LIK === (D) -lijk, (F) -lik, (G) -lich, (E) -like
RIP === (D) rijp, (F) ryp, (G) reif, (E) ripe
SPIS- === (D) spijs-, (F) spiis, (G) speis-, (E) spise-
THINGA === (D,F) dingen, (G) Dinge, (E) things
THISSA === (D) deze, (F) dizze, (G) diese, (E) these
THRIA/THRJA === (D) drie, (F) trije, (G) drei, (E) three
TID === (D) tijd, (F) tiid, (G) Zeit, (E) tide
TWILIF- === (D) twaalf, (F) tolve, (G) zwölf, (E) twelve
WÉI === (D/G) weg, (F) wei, (E) away

DJARA === (D) dieren, (G) Tiere (vero: deer, dear)
FJANDA === (D) vijanden, (G) feinde
FJVWER === (D/G) vier, (F) fjouwer, (E) four
JÉR === (D) jaar, (F) jier, (G) Jahr, (E) year
JÉRDE === (D/F) -geerde/-gearde, (G) -gehrte
JESTER === (D) gisteren, (F) juster, (G) gestern, (E) yester-
JETA === (E) yet
JOL === (D) joel, (G) jul, (E) yule
JRTHA === (D) aarde, (F) ierde, (G) Erde, (E) earth
LJAWA === (D) lieve, (F) leave, (G) liebe
LJU(D) === (D) lied-, (F) lju, (G) leut-
NJUGON === (D) negen, (F) njoggen, (G) neun, (E) nine
RJUCHT === (D/G) recht, (F) rjocht, (E) right
SJAN === (D) zien, (F) sjen, (G) sehen, (E) see

-TÍZA === (D) -tijgen/-tichten, (F) -tichtsje
BLÍ(D) === (D) blij(d)-, (F)bliid
DÍWEK === name Dieuwke
DRÍST === (D) driest, (F) dryst
DRÍVA === (D) drijven, (F) driuwe, (G) treiben, (E) drive
FÍAND === (D) vijand, (F) fijân, (G) Feind
FÍL === (D) viel, (F) foel, (G) fiel, (E) fell
FÍRJA === (D) vieren, (F) fiere, (G) feiern
FÍT (also Y) === (E) feet
GÍR === (D/F) gier, (G) Geier
GLÍANDE === (D) gloeiende, (F) gleone, (G) glühend, (E) glowing
HÍR === (D/G) hier, (F) hjir, (E) here
-HÍV === (D) -hief
ÍN- === (D) een, (F) ien, (G) ein, (E) one
ÍSER === (D) ijzer, (F) izer, (G) Eisen, (E) iron
KÍASA === (D) kiezen, (F) kieze, (E) choose
-KLÍWA === (D) -klijven
NÍG- === (D) nijg-, (G) neig-, (E) nigh
NÍTHER === (D) neder, (G) nieder, (E) nether
PAMPÍER === (D/F/G) papier, (E) paper
SKRÍVA === (D) schrijven, (F) skriuwe, (G) schreiben, (E) scribe
SPLÍTON === (D) splijten, (F) spjalte, (G) spalten, (E) split
SWÍRMJA === (D) zwermen, (F) swaarmje/swermje
THAWÍLA === (D) terwijl, (F) wylst, (G) weil, (E) while

BYLD === (D) beeld, (F) byld, (G) Bild
HLY === (D) luwte, (F) lijte, (G/E) Lee
HYR- === (D) her-/heir-, (G) Heer- (army)
KNY (also Í) === (vero:) (D/G) knie, (E) knee

KY === (F) kij (cows)
LYDA === (D) lijden, (F) lije, (G) leiden
NY === (D) nieuw, (F) nij, (G) neu, (E) new
SYTJA === name Sijtje
VRFYA === (D) verfoeien, (F) ferfije
VRSLYNNA === (D) verslinden

YTA === (D) eten, (F) ite, (G) essen, (E) eat